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An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document that may be used to prove a person’s identity. If issued in a small, standard credit card size form, it is usually called an identity card (IC, ID card, citizen card),[a] or passport card.[b] Some countries issue formal identity documents, as national identification cards which may be compulsory or non-compulsory, while others may require identity verification using regional identification or informal documents. When the identity document incorporates a person’s photograph, it may be called photo ID. [1] In the absence of a formal identity document, a driver’s license may be accepted in many countries for identity verification. Some countries do not accept driver’s licenses for identification, often because in those countries they do not expire as documents and can be old or easily forged. Most countries accept passports as a form of identification. Some countries require all people to have an identity document available at any time. Many countries require all foreigners to have a passport or occasionally a national identity card from their home country available at any time if they do not have a residence permit in the country.The identity document is used to connect a person to information about the person, often in a database. The photo and the possession of it is used to connect the person with the document. The connection between the identity document and information database is based on personal information present on the document, such as the bearer’s full name, age, birth date, address, an identification number, card number, gender, citizenship and more. A unique national identification number is the most secure way, but some countries lack such numbers or don’t mention them on identity documents. IDs are an important document to live a country. Many of the peoples are now looking for services related to their identification. There are so many service providers offering their services at reasonable prices. But here you have to choose one of the best according to your needs. We offer our customers online services that are looking for IDS services. It is very helpful for you to complete your IDs in a short time. Wrong IDs are also very much in demand. Some peoples leave the country for their reasons. In this way, they look for the fake ID services to meet their needs. It is very responsible work, therefore it is necessary to take help only from the experts. We work with professional team members who can easily solve your problems. You only need to contact us online or by phone.

History

A version of the passport considered to be the earliest identity document inscribed into law was introduced by King Henry V of England with the Safe Conducts Act 1414.[2]For the next 500 years and before World War I, most people did not have or need an identity document. Photographic identification appeared in 1876 [3] but it did not become widely used until the early 20th century when photographs became part of passports and other ID documents such as driver’s licenses, all of which came to be referred to as “photo IDs”. Both Australia and Great Britain, for example, introduced the requirement for a photographic passport in 1915 after the so-called Lody spy scandal. [4] The shape and size of identity cards were standardized in 1985 by ISO/IEC 7810. Some modern identity documents are smart cards including a difficult-to-forge embedded integrated circuit that were standardized in 1988 by ISO/IEC 7816. New technologies allow identity cards to contain biometric information, such as a photograph; face, hand, or iris measurements; or fingerprints. Many countries now issue electronic identity cards.

Adoption

Law enforcement officials claim that identity cards make surveillance and the search for criminals easier and therefore support the universal adoption of identity cards. In countries that don’t have a national identity card, there is, however, concern about the projected large costs and potential abuse of high-tech smartcards. In many countries – especially English-speaking countries such as Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States – there are no government-issued compulsory identity cards for all citizens. Ireland’s Public Services Card is not considered a national identity card by the Department of Employment Affairs and Social Protection (DEASP), [5] but many say it is in fact becoming that, and without public debate or even a legislative foundation. [6] There is debate in these countries about whether such cards and their centralised database constitute an infringement of privacy and civil liberties. Most criticism is directed towards the enhanced possibilities of extensive abuse of centralised and comprehensive databases storing sensitive data. A 2006 survey of UK Open University students concluded that the planned compulsory identity card under the Identity Cards Act 2006 coupled with a central government database generated the most negative response among several alternative configurations. None of the countries listed above mandate possession of identity documents, but they have defacto equivalents since these countries still require proof of identity in many situations. For example, all vehicle drivers must have a driving licence, and young people may need to use specially issued “proof of age cards” when purchasing alcohol. In addition, and uniquely among native English-speaking countries without ID cards, the United States requires all its male residents between the ages of 18 and 25, including foreigners, to register for military conscription.

Arguments for identity documents as such:

In order to avoid mismatching people, and to fight fraud, there should be a way, as securely as possible, to prove a person’s identity. Every human being already carries their own personal identification in the form of DNA, which is extremely hard to falsify or to discard (in terms of modification). Even for non-state commercial and private interactions, this may shortly become the preferred identifier, rendering a state-issued identity card a lesser evil than the potentially extensive privacy risks associated with everyday use of a person’s genetic profile for identification purposes.[1][7][8][9][10]

Arguments for national identity documents:

If using only private alternatives, such as ID cards issued by banks, the inherent lack of consistency regarding issuance policies can lead to downstream problems. For example, in Sweden private companies such as banks (citing security reasons) refused to issue ID cards to individuals without a Swedish card. This forced the government to start issuing national cards. It is also harder to control information usage by private companies, such as when credit card issuers or social media companies map purchase behaviour in order to assist ad targeting.

Arguments against

Further information: Read on freedom of movement and Propiska

Arguments against identity documents as such:

The development and administration costs of an identity card system can be very high. Figures from £30 ($45 in the United States) to £90 or even higher were suggested for the abandoned UK ID card. In countries like Chile the identity card is personally paid for by each person up to £6; in other countries, such as France or Venezuela, the ID card is free.[11][12] This, however, does not disclose the true cost of issuing ID cards as some additional portion may be borne by taxpayers in general.

Arguments against national identity documents:

Rather than relying on government-issued ID cards, US federal policy has the alternative to encourage the variety of identification systems that already exist, such as driver’s or firearms licences or private cards.

Arguments against overuse or abuse of identity documents:

Cards reliant on a centralized database can be used to track anyone’s physical movements and private life, thus infringing on personal freedom and privacy. The proposed British ID card (see next section) proposes a series of linked databases managed by private sector firms. The management of disparate linked systems across a range of institutions and any number of personnel is alleged to be a security disaster in the making.[13] If race is displayed on mandatory ID documents, this information can lead to racial profiling.

National policies

Main article: List of national identity card policies by country

According to Privacy International, as of 1996, possession of identity cards was compulsory in about 100 countries, though what constitutes “compulsory” varies. In some countries (see below), it is compulsory to have an identity card when a person reaches a prescribed age. The penalty for non-possession is usually a fine, but in some cases it may result in detention until identity is established. For people suspected with crimes such as shoplifting or no bus ticket, non-possession might result in such detention, also in countries not formally requiring identity cards. In practice, random checks are rare, except in certain times. A number of countries do not have national identity cards. These include Andorra,[14] Australia, the Bahamas,[15] Canada, Denmark, India (see below), Japan (see below), Kiribati, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, New Zealand, Norway,[16] Palau, Samoa, Turkmenistan,[17] Tuvalu, the United Kingdom and Uzbekistan. Other identity documents such as passports or driver’s licenses are then used as identity documents when needed. However, governments of Kiribati, Norway, Samoa and Uzbekistan are planning to introduce new national identity cards in the near future.[18][19][20] Some of these, e.g. Denmark, have more simple official identity cards, which do not match the security and level of acceptance of a national identity card, used by people without driver’s licenses. A number of countries have voluntary identity card schemes. These include Austria, Belize, Finland, France (see France section), Hungary (however, all citizens of Hungary must have at least one of: valid passport, photo-based driving licence, or the National ID card), Iceland, Ireland, Saint Lucia, Sweden, Switzerland and the United States. The United Kingdom’s scheme was scrapped in January 2011 and the database was destroyed. 

In the United States, the Federal government issues optional identity cards known as “Passport Cards” (which include important information such as the nationality). On the other hand, states issue optional identity cards for people who do not hold a driver’s license as an alternate means of identification. These cards are issued by the same organisation responsible for driver’s licenses, usually called the Department of Motor Vehicles. Passport Cards hold limited travel status or provision, usually for domestic travel requirements. Note, this is not an obligatory identification card for citizens.

For the Sahrawi people of Western Sahara, pre-1975 Spanish identity cards are the main proof that they were Saharawi citizens as opposed to recent Moroccan colonists. They would thus be allowed to vote in an eventual self-determination referendum.

Companies and government departments may issue ID cards for security purposes, proof of identity, or proof of a qualification. For example, all taxicab drivers in the UK carry ID cards. Managers, supervisors, and operatives in construction in the UK have a photographic ID [21] card, the CSCS (Construction Skills Certification Scheme) card, indicating training and skills including safety training. Those working on UK railway lands near working lines must carry a photographic ID card to indicate training in track safety (PTS and other cards) possession of which is dependent on periodic and random alcohol and drug screening. In Queensland and Western Australia, anyone working with children has to take a background check and get issued a Blue Card or Working with Children Card, respectively.

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